Writing a Bibliography: APA Format-standard formats and examples
Here are standard formats and examples for basic bibliographic information recommended by the American Psychological Association (APA). To learn more about the APA format, see http.org that is://www.apastyle.
Your list of works cited must start at the conclusion of the paper on a new page with the centered title, References. Alphabetize the entries in your list by the author’s last name, making use of the letter-by-letter system (ignore spaces and other punctuation.) Only the initials of this first and middle names are given. An, or The if the author’s name is unknown, alphabetize by the title, ignoring any A.
For dates, spell out the names of months in the text of your paper, but abbreviate them within the selection of works cited, except for May, June, and July. Use either the day-month-year style (22 July 1999) or the month-day-year style (July 22, 1999) and get consistent. Because of the month-day-year style, make sure to add a comma following the year unless another punctuation mark goes there.
Underlining or Italics?
When reports were written on typewriters, the true names of publications were underlined because most typewriters had not a way to print italics. You should still underline the names of publications if you write a bibliography by hand. But, by using a computer, then publication names should always be in italics because they are below. Check always with your instructor regarding their preference of using italics or underlining. Our examples use italics.
All APA citations should use hanging indents, that is, the very first line of an entry should really be flush left, therefore the second and subsequent lines should always be indented 1/2″.
Capitalization, Abbreviation, and Punctuation
The APA guidelines specify using sentence-style capitalization for the titles of books or articles, so you should capitalize just the first word of a title and subtitle. The exceptions for this rule will be periodical titles and proper names in a title that ought to still be capitalized. The title that is periodical run in title case, and is followed by the volume number which, utilizing the title, is also italicized.
When there is more write an essay than one author, use an ampersand (&) before the name of this last author. If there are more than six authors, list only the first one and use et al. for the others.
Put the date of publication in parentheses immediately after the name of the author. Place a period following the closing parenthesis. Usually do not italicize, underline, or put quotes all over titles of shorter works within longer works.
Allen, T. (1974). Vanishing wildlife of North America. Washington, D.C.: National Geographic Society.
Boorstin, D. (1992). The creators: a history of the heroes associated with the imagination. New York: Random House.
Nicol, A. M., & Pexman, P. M. (1999). Presenting your findings: A practical guide for creating tables. Washington, DC: American Psychological Association.
Searles, B., & Last, M. (1979). A reader’s guide to science fiction. New York: Facts on File, Inc.
Toomer, J. (1988). Cane. Ed. Darwin T. Turner. New York: Norton.
Encyclopedia & Dictionary
Bergmann, P. G. (1993). Relativity. In the encyclopedia that is new (Vol. 26, pp. 501-508). Chicago: Encyclopedia Britannica.
Merriam-Webster’s collegiate dictionary (10th ed.). (1993). Springfield, MA: Merriam-Webster.
Pettingill, O. S., Jr. (1980). Falcon and Falconry. World book encyclopedia. (pp. 150-155). Chicago: World Book.
Tobias, R. (1991). Thurber, James. Encyclopedia americana. (p. 600). New York: Scholastic Library Publishing.
Magazine & Newspaper Articles
Format: Author’s last name, first initial. (Publication date). Article title. Periodical title, volume number(issue number if available), inclusive pages.
Note: usually do not enclose the title in quotation marks. Put a period after the title. If a periodical includes a volume number, italicize it and then give the page range (in regular type) without “pp.” If the periodical does not use volume numbers, such as newspapers, use p. or pp. for page numbers. Note: Unlike other periodicals, p. or pp. precedes page numbers for a newspaper reference in APA style.
Harlow, H. F. (1983). Fundamentals for preparing psychology journal articles. Journal of Comparative and Physiological Psychology, 55, 893-896.
Henry, W. A., III. (1990, April 9). Making the grade in today’s schools. Time, 135, 28-31.
Kalette, D. (1986, 21) july. California town counts town to quake that is big. USA Today, 9, p. A1.
Kanfer, S. (1986, July 21). Heard any good books lately? Time, 113, 71-72.
Trillin, C. (1993, 15) february. Culture shopping. New Yorker, pp. 48-51.
Website or Webpage
Online document: Author’s name. (Date of publication). Title of work. Retrieved day, year, from full URL month
Note: When citing Internet sources, refer to the specific document that is website. If a document is undated, use “n.d.” (for no date) soon after the document title. Break a URL that is lengthy goes to another line after a slash or before an interval. Continually check your references to online documents. There is absolutely no period following a URL. Note: If you cannot find several of this information, cite what is available.
Devitt, T. (2001, August 2). Lightning injures four at music festival. The Why? Files. Retrieved 23, 2002, from http://whyfiles.org/137lightning/index.html january
Dove, R. (1998). Lady freedom in our midst. The Electronic Text Center. Retrieved 19, 1998, from Alderman Library, University of Virginia website: http://etext.lib.virginia.edu/subjects/afam.html june
Note: If a document is contained within a sizable and website that is complexsuch as for instance that for a university or a government agency), identify the host organization additionally the relevant program or department before giving the URL for the document itself. Precede the URL with a colon.